The Geneva Conventions
The Geneva Conventions consist of four treaties that standarize international law for war victims. In 1862, Henri Dunant was the catalyst for initiating these international treaties. A Swiss businessman and a social activist, Dunant witnessed the horrible aftermath of war at the Battle of Solferino. It was then that he wrote down his first hand experience of war and these writings inspired the creation of the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1863. Some time late in 1864, the Geneva Convention was also based on Dunant's records and ideas. He received the first Noble Peace Prize in 1901.
The Four Treaties of the Geneva Convention:
The First Geneva Convention defines "the basis on which rest the rules of the international law for protection of the victims of armed conflicts". It was originally adopted in 1864, but has been updated repeatedly since then. Originally, there were ten articles to this treaty, but is has been expanded to 64 current articles. The First Geneva Convention protects soldiers in the time of combat, as well as medical and religious personnel, and civilians in the battle zone.
Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Geneva, 12, August 1949
The Second Geneva Convention was adopted in 1906, but has been updated in 1929 and in 1949. The Second Geneva Convention protects parties who are at combat at sea.
Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded,Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Geneva, 12, August 1949
The Third Geneva Convention is relative to the treatment of Prisoners of War. It was first approved in 1929 , but updated in 1949. It outlines humantarian protection for prisoners of war.
Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War.Geneva, 12 August 1949.
The Fourth Geneva Convention calls for the protection of civilians in time of war. Like the others, it was also adopted in 1949. This convention provides humanitarian protection for civilians in a war zone as well as prohibits Total War.
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949
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